December 31, 2008 update:
Last post of the year: No big news, but I did get the "indicator" light hooked up in the hallway. Whenever the organ is "on" it is now so quiet you can't hear it running, so I have a very bright Red light in the hallway to remind me that the organ is on....especially important if I leave for the weekend and forgot to turn off the blowers etc.
That was never a big issue before as the blowers were so loud you always knew when the organ was on...now with the muffler boxes and soundtraps installed you can't hear the organ running (unless it is being played!) so the light is something important to have so I don't accidently leave the organ on when I'm out traveling etc.
December 25, 2008 update:
Trevor got the 412's Bourdon rank hooked up and playing in his living room for Christmas:
Next project will be the swell shades...stay tuned for updates on that probalby sometime in January or February...things have slowed down in terms of working on the organ for now, but things will continue to be worked on over time..still alot of odds and ends to take care of!
December 1, 2008 update:
Ed will be busy during the upcoming holiday with other tunings and festivities so not real sure there will be much to "blog" about possibly until early next year....so if things remain calm before then, have a Merry Merry Christmas! I'm going to be traveling quite a bit over the next few weeks so I doubt I'll have much time at all to record. I do plan on recording some more Christmas music, but probably not until right before Christmas...I have a few more "standards" I want to get recorded when I get a chance...but that probably won't be until Dec 20 or so.
November 21, 2008
St. Paul's Lutheran Church on its "big move".
Trevor took my pic below the original St. Paul's Lutheran Church on its "big move", on the evening of November 20th, 2008.
This is the historic St. Paul's (Borchers) Lutheran Church that the Reuter opus #822 pipe organ was originally built for in 1948. The organ was in service here until late 2003.
The church is being moved to make way for an expanded parking lot near the new church/school buildings.
November 20, 2008 update:
Trevor returned for a afternoon/evening of work on the 822...he got the wind line connections replaced between the 822 chest and reservoir....because of space constraints we could NOT put on the usual PVC couplers and flanges so he carefully fixed up the old flanges and used this 6" rubber hose to connect the chest to the reservoir. It works fine and solved all the air leak problems from this area which was leaking quite badly.
He also was able to do some repairs on the switching (The Lieblich Gedeckt mechanism wiring had went haywire and would not work correctly..he also repaired some stop tab wiring on the original 822 console that had gotten miswired somehow so it is now again working correctly.
A note now....the air leaks on the 412 chest and 822 chest are nearly completely taken care of. Just a few minor ones left on the Montra facade pipes of the 822 chest and on the un-glued air lines between the 822 chest and the tremulant and the Montra.
Ed did an AMAZING...repeat....AMAZING job getting the 412 leaks repaired..there are no air leaks that you can hear when sitting below the 412 chest..it is just amazing...awesome work as always Ed!
November 13, 2008: Really no news to report...no new updates until next week sometime....I might get some recording done this afternoon, but after that it will be at after Wednesday next week before I start posting new recordings, updates.
November 12, 2008 morning update:
Ed continues to work on air leaks, yesterday he got almost all the air leaks fixed on the "Great" side of the 412 chest...the 412 chest is divided into two....Swell and Great although both sides were under the same expression in the church......next week he will finish up the "Swell" portion of the 412 chest..but already taking care of the Great side has reduced the air leaks REMARKABLY...as always...fantastic work Ed!!!!!!
You will note that the rubber sewer gaskets on the PVC allow for access to the organ for needed repairs.
Here is the freshly "releathered" lid for the regulator for the 412 reservoir.
November 11, 2008 update:
Ed returned yesterday and is installing the "Muffler covers" underneath the 412 chest as well as working on the various air leaks.
Here is a photo of the curtain valve box on the opus 412 organ.
You can just see the silicone around the outer edges of the box. This box leaked quite a bit of air so this should help out on that.
Alot of areas of the organ need this type of work to seal air leaks so that it will record better and not sound like a tea kettle at full boil when you turn on the blower!
The Reuter opus 412 Bourdon 8' makes a visit to Michigan!
Trevor got the Bourdon up and running as a demonstration project for Kellogg Community College, his school in Battle Creek,Michigan:
Here you can see he has a blower hooked up, a reservoir/regulator and the two chests holding the 8' Octave of the Bourdon rank from the Reuter opus 412. It was demonstrated at in the Music History class he is taking at the Kellogg Community College in Battle Creek, Michigan.
To refresh: The Bourdon from the opus 412 was just in storage in my garage...I had no plans on using it but long term want to keep it with the organ in case the original organ goes back to the church it was built for ..then I'd use this rank in my house..so it is sort of on "stand by".
However...we have an idea.....to divide the chest in two....and place these pipes directly in front of the swell shades above the bathroom upstairs.
If that works we'd mount this rank as a 4' Flute that would further "un-initize" the pipe organ in my house...replacing the stop on the organ from the 4' "borrowed" from the 8' Gedeckt'.
Below is another photo of the pipes in Trevor's house, you can see the little MIDI keyboard he uses to operate the organ..he has it set up to where a computer will operate the organ. Once he gets a "Youtube" video of the organ playing I'll link that from here so stay tuned!
In case you are wondering, the egg carton contains the top 4' Octave of pipes which he did not need for his demonstration piece.
November 10 afternoon update:
A hint of something that Trevor is working on..will post more on this tomorrow...this is the Reuter opus 412's Bourdon rank. This photo was taken by Trevor at his house in Michigan....Trevor is setting it up to play as a "demonstration" organ for his school in Michigan..the pipes are not used on the 822 presently although we are thinking of a possible placement for them if we can get them voiced to be chiffy to differentiate them from the Gedeckt on the 822.
We are toying with the idea of eliminating the grooves in the lips of the pipes to make the rank chiffy, and installing just the 4' section behind the 822 Great organ to have a "baroque" chiffy 4' flute...but I'm not sure at all that it would fit.
This rank originally was on the opus 412's chest, but we have a metal Spitzflote rank on its place presently in the swell chamber. I like the idea of a chiffy 4' flute so we are considering adding this to the 822.....maybe!
Here are some pics taken on Sunday when Trevor picked up the rank to take up to Michigan.
The wood pipes end at the top of the 8' section...the metal pipes in the photo take the rank to 4'....this rank originally was 16', 8', 4', and 2'....I have the 2' on the 412 chest working (and revoiced) with the Spitzflute 8' to give the swell organ its "Flautina Dolce 2'" which is a VERY useful stop to have on the organ.
Long term plans: If I had room I'd put in the other 16' extention for a very soft 16' sound, but ..alas..no room...we might get the 4' section in, it is possible but probably not for a long time..many other priorities!
November 10, 2008 update:
A important note on Sewer Couplers:
We discovered these "Sewer Couplers" at the local Home Depot....these work great for connecting PVC lines where you want to be able to go back in and change/access areas without having to cut into the PVC.
The photo above is of a 4" coupler but they are available in sizes from 12" to 8" and smaller at larger commercial plumbing supply stores...and Home Depot here locally carries the 8" diameter size which is the largest we needed. I have about 10 of the 8" size couplers at various parts of the organ..Tim has them installed in many places to allow future maintenance of the reservoirs.
They also work VERY well for between the main chests and the reservoirs below, and as noted in the photos above, they move around after you release the "bands" that hold them in place to allow access to whatever parts of the organ they are attached to.
You may wonder why I'm so excited to post about sewer couplers: The MAIN reason is that they insulate the wind noise...compared to........we had been using standard rubber cloth as couplers which allow alot of noise from the windlines/blowers to escape into the pipe areas.....having the sewer gaskets between the PVC however allows the wind noise to be reduced markedly compared to using cloth....the other issue is they are still somewhat flexible...and allow for coupling PVC lines in a way that allows quite a bit of "give" and "tolerance".
They are not easy to install but they do work...it is quite difficult at times to get them to fit as they are VERY snug, however they do move with some effort.
When the blowers are on they do not bulge out and seem to hold the wind just fine.
Nov 9, 2008 update:
GREAT news..both blowers are now installed and working just fine.
There is now ample wind for the entire organ!!!!!!!!
As soon as Trevor got it all hooked up we ran the Widor Toccata thru at FULL organ with ALL ranks playing at ALL pitches with ALL couples and there was always plenty of wind!!!!!!..also did the same thing on STAR WARS which takes even more wind....so its all winded FINALLY!!!!!!!!!
Here is a photo showing both blowers...the blower on the left is a 2 HP Zephyr blower ..the blower on the right is a 3/4 HP Zephyr blower. Both are in "muffler boxes" and include a "Sound Trap" box on top that keeps the blower noise to a minimum.
Note the rubber gaskets....this is to allow the blowers to be disconnected for maintenance etc.
NICE WORK TREVOR!!
This is a pic from this past summer showing the old blower and the 3/4 horse Zephyr. We had it (the Zephyr 3/4 horse temporarily rigged up to play the swell organ, and the original 1/2 horse Spencer on the 822 (great) organ...., but the 3/4 horse blower was not large enough for the 16 ranks on the "swell" organ except to get the ranks playing for tuning etc.
Nov 8, 2008 morning update:
Trevor got the new 2HP blower hooked up to the Swell organ last night, it works FANTASTIC!
Check out the new recording on the MP3 page which highlights the difference the soundtraps make. LOTS of air leaks yet though which now have to be fixed.
Note the rubber gasket....the 8" PVC to the swell organ (and fireplace ranks) is glued in place upstairs but for now it is just dry-fitted. To allow for any maintenance at the blower the rubber gasket can be loosened and then the dry-fitted PVC to the blower can be removed without any difficulties.
Nov 7, 2008 afternoon update:
New blower in the process of being installed.
This is the outer Muffler box and Sound-Trap (above) which will hopefully keep the noise level to a minimum.
November 7, 2008 update:
The new blower has arrived..Trevor arrived last night and today we will be starting the install on that. If all goes spendidly it should be in operation by this evening. If not..well who knows then! (laughing).
Once we get the new blower in there are lots of things to do, but not sure what we will get done:
Here is the shorterm goals:
1. Install new blower and muffler boxes w/ sound traps.
2. Replace remaining rubber cloth air lines that we put in over the summer as a "stopgap" to get air to the organ.
3. Install the stopaction covers underneath the 412 chest to quiet it down (you hear that action in particular on the Spitzflute which is almost "tracker like" in the amount of noise it creates when it is being played.
4. Start going thru and removing all air leaks. Lots of gray electrical tape on the organ that is leaking like crazy that needs replaced with something more permenant.
Some tonal issues I'm considering:
I'm leaning at this point to put the opus 412's Dulciana rank onto the Fireplace "Viole Celeste" chest. The Viole Celeste pipes have a much more interesting history but are just not a nice match for the opus 822's Dulciana OR Salicional.
So with either Ed or Trevor sometime in the near future I want to experiment with swapping out those pipes.
The Viole Celeste pipes were made to celeste with a Viole De Gambe at 6 inches of wind. Presently they are at 3 inches of wind and still overpowering the Dulciana rank on the 822...the 822's Salicional is to "loud" to be a good celeste rank with it.
Long term I want to try putting the Viole Celeste rank in the swell chamber and using it with the Violin Diapason but it may be a while before I get around to doing that.
Short term I have already had a stoptab engraved for a "Dulciana Celeste" so I am leaning towards at least trying the 2 Dulciana ranks together and seeing what that sounds like.
Another tonal change is going to be re-scaling the Armory Trumpet. It was rescaled "up" a note when it was taken from 15 inches and reworked to 4 inches of wind....we are going to experiment with a few notes on it of putting the notes back to the original scale at 6 inches of wind...there I would think is a 5% chance it might work, so we are going to try that anyhow and see what happens..but that is a longer term thing.
The main issues we will be working on now are getting the new blower in, and getting all the wind leaks fixed or at least muffled so that the organ records better so I can get going on recording Christmas music for the Holiday!
I'm in particular looking forward to recording the revoiced Spitzflute and Flute Celeste that Reuter just redid so spendidly!
Bill Klimas, VP of tonal design of the Reuter Organ company revoicing one of the Dulciana 8' bass pipes used as the 8' section of the Flute Celeste.
Proctor Crow, voicer at Reuter, working the treble end of the Flute Celeste.
November 5, 2008 update: Bill Klimas & Proctor Crow of the Reuter Organ Company arrived yesterday and COMPLETELY revoiced the Spitzflote & Flute Celeste.
A quick recording of those ranks exclusively is at:
"In the Bleak Mid-Winter, with the newly revoiced Spitzflute & Flute Celeste ranks exclusively"
These pipes were all extensively revoiced by Proctor including closing the toeholds on all the pipes and very carefully regulating the languids to work at 6 inches of wind. The results are amazing.
This now "new" rank is very soft, so the blower noise and air leaks are very distracting, the new blower and muffler boxes arrive today, and hopefully we will get those installed this weekend.
The organ still leaks sounds like a teapot going off, so much work remains in terms of getting all the hissing eliminated but that is the goal long term, especially now to enjoy the newly revoiced Spitzflote & Flute celeste ranks which are now so "ethereal".
November 1, 2008 update:
Took some pics this a.m. of the fall colors..having a very late year for colors this year.
October 30, 2008 upate:
LOTS of good news to report....
1. The new much larger blower arrives tomorrow which SHOULD HOPEFULLY solve the "winding" issues on the 412 chest and the Tibia...we are going from a 3/4 horse blower to a 2 hp blower.
2. Reuter stops by on Monday to regulate the organ, I'm NOT sure that I can get the new blower installed before then but if Ed can make it down here I might be able to!
October 25, 2008 update:
The Southern Indiana chapter of the American Guild of Organists held their fall "Weenie-Roast" at my house. The good news is the organ was for the most part working and in tune other than the winding problems which cause certain ranks to go "flat" quite often now on the higher pressure.
Some photos of the event:
Top row: from left: Trevor (in red shirt), Ed, Linda, Judith, David & Myself
2nd row starting down the steps: Janet, Bernadette, Carolyn, Ronnie & Theresa.
Bernadette at the Holtkamp console.
Judith at the Holtkamp console
Ed playing a nice "mini" concert.
October 24, 2008 update: Trevor go the Montre rank "re-hung" on the 822 chest...they were leaning against the Gedeckt pipes behind them before this, now they are on a proper shalloted board so they are vertical.
Looking SHARP in the correct alignment!!!!!!..NICE job Trevor, thanks!!!!!
October 21, 2008 update:
The organ is tuned!!!!
Today Ed finished tuning the other ranks so the entire organ is finally in tune, so check out the webpage for some FRESH recordings of a FRESHLY tuned pipe organ.
Yesterday Ed arrived to start tuning..we started at about 11 a.m. and quit around midnight.....and were able to tune all but one (waiting to do the Montre last so that the timing works out to when the organ will be used most so it is in tune most of the time as it is on two levels in the house) of flue ranks on the organ (14 or 15 ranks)....very time consuming to tune the organ, but it is sounding REALLY nice and "tight".
It has been facinating learning how Ed tunes the celeste ranks in particular...the three celeste ranks are tuned differently with the Flute Celeste being a slower sharp beat...the Vox Celeste being a fast sharp beat...and the Viole Celeste being a slower "flat" beat....really more a Unda Maris.
With the tuning the issue of the organ being underwinded has became MUCH more evident....mainly because now the Tibia rank is useful (in tune with the rest of the organ)...so when that air hogging rank is being played the parts of the organ winded on that same blower are severely underwinded to the point that the Tibia "goes flat" quite a bit.
A new blower is on the way to remededy the air supply problem however and SHOULD be in place by Christmas I hope!
Hopefully this a.m. Ed and I will get the remaining reed ranks tuned.
MAYBE later this afternoon I will get a sample recording or two made of the newly tuned organ, however I'm going to wait on the new blower before going "all out" on new recordings.
October 14, 2008 update:
Ed returned yesterday to work on various things on the organ....
The 412 chest is literally coated in places with coal dust.
The 412 organ came from a church in Nevada, Iowa..unfortunately the organ seemed to share its location with a coal fired heating system.
Ed is carefully cleaning out all the coal soot so that the organ will operate "airtight".
Ed shown here putting back some newly cleaned and freshly cleaned 'primaries' for the 412 chest.
Putting together a likely "Final (for 2008)" specification of 21 ranks of pipes for the Holtkamp console utilizing the MAXIMUM number of stoptabs it will allow: 16 pedal, 20 great, 20 swell.
Until the 16' Armory Trumpet pipes get installed I'll probably put the 4' Clarion stoptab in its place on the Pedal.
The 16' Armory Trumpet 12 note extention in the Swell for the Pedal will not be placed until after the swell shades are installed most likely, but it is a POSSIBILITY that this year Trevor will get those in..not sure..
The present 16' Trumpet 16's location is quite nice as a soft pedal reed, but for large French works in particular is too soft...SO..it will likely give up its placement for the Armory Trumpet 16' when Trevor can come down to Mitre those pipes.....
Then the Schlicker Trumpet 16' pipes will be moved out front behind the 822 chest and voiced to work with the Oboe rank on the 822 to either be a 12 note 16' extention of that rank..whether I continue to call it a 16' Trumpet or rename it a "Contra Oboe 16" will depend on how it sounds eventually.
Regards the "Grand Diapason" on the Swell..it will most likely simply be labled a Diapason eventually........when we bumped up the pressure on the 412 chest the Grand Diapason rank went from being a wonderful orchestral blending flue rank to being a true Diapason rank....so will be terming it that as I believe it is more appropriate.
I do MISS the sound of the softer Grand Diapason, but tuning issues do necessitate it being on the higher pressure.
32' Gravissima (Gedeckt Resultant)
16' Subbass (SW)
16' Lieblich Gedeckt
8' Diapason (46/45 sc, 5 in)
8' Montre (46/45 sc, GT, 4 in)
8' Tibia Clausa (SW)
8' Bass Flute
16' Armory Trumpet (SW)
Swell to Pedal
8' Open Diapason (46/45 sc, 5 in)
8' Tibia Clausa (SW)
8' Viole Celeste (TC, 57 sc, exposed)
4' Octave (SW, 6 in)
2 2/3' Nazard
2' Spitz Principal (SW, 6 in)
8' Clarinet (SW)
Great to Great 16'
Great to Great 4'
Blank Programable Tab
8' Montre (exposed)
8' Diapason (42 sc)
8' Violin Diapason (52/48 sc)
8' Tibia Clausa
8' Spitz Flote
8' Flute Celeste
8' Echo Salicional
8' Vox Celeste (TC, 62 sc)
4' Tibia Flute
4' Spitz Flute
2' Flautina Dolce
8' Armory Trumpet
8' Vox Humana
8' Oboe (GT)
Swell to Swell 16'
Swell Unison Off
Swell to Swell 4'
Swell to Great
5 ranks of the original Reuter opus 822.
October 6, 2008 update:
Gedeckt, 97 notes, 16', 8', 4', 2', 2 2/3'
Open Diapason, 73 notes, 8' & 4'
Salicional, 73 notes, 8' & 4'
Dulciana, 73 notes, 8' & 4'
Oboe, 73 notes, 8' & 4'
1 rank from the Opus 638
Montre (Open Diapason) 8' - facade rank on the organ - 68 notes (4' complete to high G on the 56 note Holtkamp console).
3 ranks plus pedal offset of Reuter opus 195.
Tibia Clausa 8' & 4', 68 notes (4' complete to high G on the 56 note Holtkamp console).
Vox Humana 8', 61 notes
Viole Celeste 8', TC, 49 notes
Subbass 16' 12 note Pedal Extention of Tibia 8'
8 ranks from the Reuter opus 412.
Grand Diapason 8' (Open Diapason), 73 notes
Violin Diapason 8' , 73 notes
Octave 4', 61 notes
Spitz Principal 2', 61 notes
Melodia 8', 73 notes
Salicional 8', 73 notes
Vox Celeste 8', TC, 49 notes
Hautbois 8', 73 notes (Oboe)
2 ranks Reuter, unknown opus/vintage.
Spitz Flote 8', 4' & 2', 51 scale, 85 notes
Flute Celeste 8', 73 notes.
3 ranks non-Reuter.
Armory Trumpet 8', Austin, 61 notes, from the Austin Opus 262 built for the Atlanta Auditorium Armory in 1910.
Clarinet 8', 61 notes, Moller, 1920's vintage.
Trumpet 16', 12 note pedal extention, Schlicker, 1980's vintage, mitered to approx 10 feet. Works with
the Armory Trumpet (Austin) for a pedal 16' reed on the 822.
WHITE: Reuter opus 822 (exposed, 5 inches wind).
RED: Reuter opus 638 (exposed), 4 inches wind.
CYAN: Reuter opus 195 (Tibia/Vox in the swell, Viole Celeste above fireplace in main room) undetermined wind pressure.
ORANGE: Reuter opus 412 (swell) 6 inches wind
PURPLE: Reuter Spitz Flute & Flute Celeste
(Reuter, unspecified vintage, 51 scale)
These two ranks willl be used for the 8' Spitz Flute & celeste as well as the 4' and 2' flutes on the swell.
It is a 73 note rank, and I will be filling in the top notes with the 2' pipes of a bourdon from the opus 412 which will be revoiced to fill the top octave of this stop at 2'.
It will be placed on the 412 chest in place of the opus 412's unit Bourdon and Dulciana rank.
The non-Reuter 2 ranks (1 Trumpet and a Clarinet) are a 1920's vintage Moller Clarinet 8' rank
A 1980's Schlicker 16' mitered trumpet 12 note extention will work with the 8/4 Armory Trumpet from the Swell manual from the Austin opus 262 Atlanta Auditorium Armory of 1910.
Lime Green - Unitized combination Stop
This stop will comprise the unit 1 1/3' Tierce from the 822 Salicional, 2', 1 3/5' and 1' 822's Gedeckt
I had these stops as independant stoptabs on the Holtkamp console but due to space reasons I won't be able to have them anymore so I have combined them to form a Mixture for the Great.
The 2008 complete organ will have 21 ranks:
5 Diapason ranks (three ranks at 8', one at 4' and one at 2')
3 Flute ranks
8 String ranks (includings the Violin Diapason & string celestes, Spitz Flute and Flute Celeste which is more stringy than flutey in my opinion)
5 Reed ranks
Plus the pedal 16' extentions.
Ed got the Melodia rank working correctly today, so for the first time since it has been in the house it is working 100%....THNAKS ED!!!!!
October 3, 2008: Posted 4 new recordings on the MP3 page, the Fanfare obviously highlights the big Austin Armory Trumpet quite interestingly....some tuning issues yet of course, but still quite fun!
A side note...these 4 recordings just posted have the bass adjusted up a bit, which is nicer in some regards as it is closer to matching how it sounds in person however it tends to rattle the speakers when the volume is set higher so still working on that.
October 2, 2008 update:
The new stoptabs for the Holtkamp console arrived from Syndyne yesterday, they look great...I'll now have a complete matching set of stoptabs when I can get all those changed out.
Some of the stoptabs.
Posted a few "loud" recordings on the MP3 page, mainly these are just test recordings to gauge how that 16' Trumpet is sounding on the pedal (quite weak...you can hear it at times, but really needs to be louder)...........SO....AFTER the 822 main chest is all sealed up (it has a lot of air leaks now) and the new blower is in and it is functioning tip-top I hope Trevor can come back down to move the Schlicker 16' pedal extension to right behind the 822 case.
At that point I'm thinking of having those 12 notes work with the Oboe on the 822 chest and have it as a exposed 16' pedal rank. Moving it up front will give it a HUGE presence, and moving it to the 822 chest will lower the pressure from 6 inches to 5 inches which will soften it up a tad...so it should work out well there.
Will leave the chests the Schlicker 12 notes are on where they are and put the Austin Armory 16' 12' rank on those (that will require that those notes be mitered, so that may not be happening until next summer.
So sometime next summer I'd have 2 16' pedal ranks..depending on how the Schlicker sounds up front. IF the Schlicker sounds great up front and there is enough "oooopmh" on the bottom of the organ for large French works etc then I'll leave it at just that rank, but if more 16' power is required then I would put in the Armory 16' octave eventually.
I have the stoptabs engraved already for a change of the Schlicker to work with the Oboe...at that point I'd just term it a 16' Contra Oboe, but I may just continue to call it a trumpet. The 822 oboe is very powerful and is really more a soft trumpet than an oboe, so either name for the stoptab would be appropriate..will just wait and see which is more appropriate when I have the rank moved.
Ed returns Oct. 6. Having some issues with the Melodia, hopefully Ed can get that rank working correctly again....and he will be going over the various air leaks on the various chests to get those all snug and leak free. (that is the goal anyhow!)
PREVIOUS blog postings at:
July20 - September 2008 blog updates, including information on the clarinet rank.
July1 - 18 2008 blog updates, includes a visit to Georgia, and placement of the Austin Armory Trumpet.
June, 2008 blog updates, including photos of the newly installed opus 412 pipes.
May 6 thru May 31, 2008 blog updates, including photos and historical information on the Austin Atlanta Armory Trumpet
January thru May 5th 2008 blog updates.
2004 thru 2007 blogs.
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